Content identified by location

The artist on the right won the Album of the year

Taylor Swift Ed Sheeran

Plain language is not used

Title I of the CARE Act creates a program of formula and supplemental competitive grants to help metropolitan areas with 2,000 or more reported AIDS cases meet emergency care needs of low-income HIV patients. Title II of the Ryan White Act provides formula grants to States and territories for operation of HIV service consortia in the localities most affected by the epidemic, provision of home and community -based care, continuation of insurance coverage for persons with HIV infection, and treatments that prolong life and prevent serious deterioration of health. Up to 10 percent of the funds for this program can be used to support Special Projects of National Significance.

Content is not in correct reading order in source code

3-Step Skin Care


Content is not organised into well-defined groups or chunks, using headings, lists, and other visual mechanisms

Example page with a long block of unorganised content.

First instance of abbreviation not expanded

GDS is part of the Cabinet Office. Our job is digital transformation of government.

Page Layout

Wide page forces users to scroll horizontally

When sites are constructed to require horizontal scrolling in order to navigate or read content at a normal size of 100% using standard screen sizes, additional problems can arise for users with low vision or mobility impairments.

This is some text you have to horizontally scroll to read.

Colour and Contrast

Colour alone is used to convey content

The green mushrooms listed here are OK to eat. The red mushrooms will kill you.

Small text does not have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 so does not meet AA

This small text does not have enough contrast with it's background

Large text does not have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 so does not meet AA

This small text does not have enough contrast with it's background

Small text does not have a contrast ratio of at least 7:1 so does not meet AAA

This small text does not have enough contrast with it's background

Large text does not have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 so does not meet AAA

This small text does not have enough contrast with it's background

Focus not visible

This links has visible focus but this button doesn't


Inadequate line height used

Many people with cognitive disabilities have trouble tracking lines of text when a block of text is single spaced. Providing spacing between 1.5 to 2 allows them to start a new line more easily once they have finished the previous one.

All caps text found

Typing sentences or phrases IN ALL CAPITALS is rarely a good idea. It may make sense under some circumstances, but only rarely. Lengthy segments of capitalized content are more difficult to read. In some cases, a screen reader may interpret ALL CAPITAL text as being an acronym and may read it as letters rather than words. For example, a screen reader may read the uppercase text CONTACT US as "Contact U. S." because it interprets the uppercase "US" as being an acronym for "United States".

Blinking text and moving text (such as a marquee) can distract the reader's attention. This is especially relevant to people with attention deficits or cognitive disabilities. Neither is likely to cause a seizure, but they are likely to decrease the readability of the document as a whole and increase the time it takes for users to finish reading it.

Italics used on long sections of text

Italics are sometimes used to highlight text. But you shouldn't use italicized text because they make letters hard to read. The letters have a jagged line compared to non-italic fonts. The letters also lean over making it hard for dyslexic users to make out the words. When the text size is small, the text is even more illegible.

Marquee element found

The BLINK and MARQUEE element animates content in a way that cannot be overridden or disabled by the user.

Long lines of text

For people with some reading or vision disabilities, long lines of text can become a significant barrier. They have trouble keeping their place and following the flow of text. Having a narrow block of text makes it easier for them to continue on to the next line in a block. Lines should not exceed 80 characters

Very small text found

This is some tiny text, much too small for some people to read

Justified text found

When text is justified to both margins it may add additional spaces between words which may be difficult for users with visual or cognitive impairments to read. Full text justification can also cause words to be spaced closely together thus making it difficult to determine where a word starts and ends.

Language of content

Text language changed without required change in direction

الإعفاء الإلكتروني من التأشيرة

html element has an empty lang attribute

Example page with an empty lang attribute

lang attribute not used to identify change of language

Mother, he's asking you to go. He's saying, "Allons, Madame plaisante!"

Text language is in the wrong direction

Electronic visa waiver

html element has an invalid value in the lang attribute

Example page with an invalid lang attribute

lang attribute used to identify change of language, but with invalid value

Mother, he's asking you to go. He's saying, "Allons, Madame plaisante!"

html element is missing a lang attribute

Example page with a missing lang attribute

html element has lang attribute set to wrong language

Example page with a lang attribute set to the wrong language

lang attribute used to identify change of language, but with wrong language

Mother, he's asking you to go. He's saying, "Allons, Madame plaisante!"

Page Title

Inappropriate page title

Example page with a inappropriate page title

Empty page title

Example page with a empty page title

Missing page title

Example page with a missing page title


Empty heading

This paragraph is preceded by an empty H4

Missing H1

Example page with no H1

Text formatting used instead of an actual heading

Fake Heading

This paragraph is preceded by a div that is styled to look like a heading

Headings not structured in a hierarchical manner

Heading 3

Pages should be structured in a hierarchical manner, generally with one 1st degree headings (h1) being the most important (usually page titles or main content heading), then 2nd degree headings (h2 - usually major section headings), down to 3rd degree headings (sub-sections of the h2), and so on.

Heading 5

Technically, lower degree headings should be contained within headings of the next highest degree (i.e., one should not skip heading levels, such as from an h2 to an h4, going down the document).

Heading 4

This is an example where heading levels have been skipped and are not in a logical order, which makes the page difficult to understand and navigate for people using assistive technologies such as screen reader.


LI element with no parent

  • no parent
  • List not marked up as a list

    * apple
    * orange
    * banana
    * pear

    DT or DD elements that are not contained within a DL element

    a markup language for describing web documents

    Improperly nested lists


    Table with column headers and double row headers

    Road Traffic at Junctions
    Road Junction Car Bus
    Regent Street Oxford Street 307 12
    Regent Street Bond Street 1731 58
    Southwark Street Union Street 1975 51

    Table has no scope attributes

    Opening times
    Monday-Friday Saturday Sunday
    08:00 - 12:00 open open closed
    12:00 - 16:00 open closed closed

    Table nested within table header

    Item Cost
    Lunch £6.99
    Item Cost
    Accommodation £499.99
    Travel £109.99

    Table nested within table

    Item Cost
    Lunch £6.99
    Item Cost
    Accommodation £499.99
    Travel £109.99

    Table has no table headings

    Shelly's Daughters
    Name Age Birthday
    Jackie 5 April 5
    Beth 8 January 14

    Table with inconsistent numbers of columns in rows

    Requester information
    Requester Information
    Name Jon Smith Date 9/9/2005
    Department Customer Service
    E-mail Phone 07700 900258

    Table that only has TH elements in it

    Foo Bar Bat Baz

    Table is missing a caption

    Name Age Birthday
    Jackie 5 April 5
    Beth 8 January 14

    Table used for layout

    Welcome to our homepage

    Here you can find out who we are, what we do and why you should buy our products.

    Table has an empty table header

    Shelly's Daughters
    Age Birthday
    Jackie 5 April 5
    Beth 8 January 14

    Table with some empty cells

    Bills before Parliament 2016-17
    Current House Bill title Last updated
    Lords Abortion (Disability Equality) Bill [HL] 26.05.2016
    Lords Access to Palliative Care Bill [HL] 10.06.2016


    Image has alt and title that are different


    Image with presentation role has non-empty alt

    Decorative line clipart

    Image with no alt attribute

    Background image that conveys information does not have a text alternative

    Taking too much of your pension money in early retirement could mean you don't have enough for later.

    Image has empty alt and non-empty title

    A distraction is present, an animated gif

    Animated gif of a Christmas tree with a toy train round and round the base of the tree

    Image that conveys information has an empty alt attribute

    Image that conveys information has inappropriate alt text


    Image alt attribute contains image file name


    Image with partial text alternative

    The image below contains a lot of information, such as which departments the sale is on. The text alternative in the alt attribute does not include this information, only a partial "25% off sale"

    25% off sale


    Embedded video file is missing text alternative

    Flashing content doesn't have warning

    Embedded audio file is missing text alternative

    Press me!

    Polar bear

    The polar bear is a carnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.

    Read more
    Page A Page B Page C
    Listen to the interview
    Dyslexia style guide
    Do something
    Lions are the only truly social cats, with related females living together in prides overseen by male coalition that compete for possession in fierce and often fatal battles. Lions are predatory carnivores and it's the females that perform most of the hunting at night; the majority of the prey being antelope, zebra and wildebeest.

    To know more about me, visit my page.

    Red Panda Red Panda
    Visit the GOV.UK website .
    Red Panda Red Panda
    Watch the interview
    Click here for more information on the Rocky Mountains.
    My favourite bat


    Image button has no alt attribute

    Empty button

    Uninformative alt attribute value on image button

    Empty alt attribute on image button


    Errors identified by colour only

    Labels missing when they would look clumsy for some form controls

    Error messages - no suggestion for corrections given, e.g. required format

    Left aligned form labels with too much white space

    Group of radio buttons not enclosed in a fieldset

    Do you already have a personal user account?

    Form element has no label

    Fieldset without a legend

    I am a fieldset without a legend

    Empty legend

    Label element with for= attribute but not matching id= attribute of form control

    Non-matching for attribute

    Group of check boxes not enclosed in a fieldset

    Which types of waste do you transport regularly?

    Empty label found

    Two unique labels, but identical for= attributes

    Errors identified with a poor colour contrast

    Non-unique field label found

    Missing labels in checkboxes

    What is your nationality?

    Field hint not associated with input

    It'll be on your last payslip. For example, JH 21 90 0A.

    Placeholder no label

    Errors are not identified

    Form control that changes context without warning

    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

    Keyboard Access

    Alert shows for a short time

    Lightbox - close button doesn't receive focus

    Open lightbox

    Focus order in wrong order

    Tabindex greater than 0

    A link with a tabindex greater than 0

    Keyboard focus is not indicated visually

    Link with no focus style

    Keyboard focus assigned to a non focusable element using tabindex=0

    My favourite car

    Concertina items don't get keyboard focus

    Understanding user research
    • How user research improves service design
    • Start by learning user needs
    • Understanding users who don't use digital services
    Preparing for user research
    • Plan user research for your service
    • Plan a round of user research
    • Find user research participants
    • Choose a location for user research
    • Write a recruitment brief
    • Getting users' consent for research
    Analysing and sharing findings
    • Sharing user research findings
    • Analyse a research session

    Keyboard trap

    Example page that contains a keyboard trap

    Dropdown navigation - only the top level items receive focus

    Lightbox - ESC key doesn't close the lightbox

    Open lightbox

    Tooltips don't receive keyboard focus

    Accesskey attribute used

    A link with an accesskey attribute

    Lightbox - focus is not moved immediately to lightbox

    Open lightbox

    Lightbox - focus is not retained within the lightbox

    Open lightbox

    Fake button is not keyboard accessible

    launch webchat


    iframe is missing a title attribute

    iframe title attribute does not describe the content or purpose of the iframe


    Content is not readable and functional when text is increased

    This text becomes unreadable when you increase the text-size (Zoom text only) in Firefox

    Non-decorative content inserted using CSS

    My favourite food is

    visibility:hidden used to visually hide content when it should be available to screenreader

    Read more about rugby

    display:none used to visually hide content when it should be available to screenreader

    Read more about football

    Page zoom - boxes that don't expand with the text

    The box below this example won't expand to fit the text contained within when zoomed in.

    This service is for England and Wales only. You must contact individual prisons in Northern Ireland or Scotland to book a visit.


    Duplicate id

    Article element used to mark-up an element that's not an article/blog post etc.

    Empty paragraph

    Deprecated center element

    This text is centred using the center element

    Invalid ARIA role names

    Object not embedded accessibly - wmode parameter not set to window

    Alternative text

    Spacer image found

    We are here. And you are there.

    Inline style adds colour

    The colour of this text is set using inline styles.

    Start and close tags don't match

    strings of pearls

    PRE element without CODE element inside it

      /\ (`/`|| _     +
     /--\,)\,||   (||`|
            goes here

    Deprecated font element

    The size and face of this text is set using the font element and the size and face attributes